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bitGlossary of Gyroplane / Flying Terms*
   
Abort Discontinue a planned event already in progress.
ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast. An equipment system for automatically broadcasting a gyroplane's position, altitude, direction, and speed to other aircraft / ground control using the same system. Could replace convention radar in the future. -> more
Advancing Blade Rotor blade moving in the same horizontal direction as the gyroplane.
Aerodynamics Thrust, drag, weight, lift. Aerodynamics is the ability of a machine to move through the air efficiently enough to overcome weight and drag with sufficient thrust to lift the machine off the ground in a controlled manner. The better the balance the better the aerodynamics.
Airfoil Produces lift from the movement of air under and over it.
Airspeed The speed at which air passes over the leading edge of a wing. The speed at which air passes over the body of a gyroplane. (see also rotor speed)
Autogire French name for autogyro (Français).
Also use autogiro which is Spanish (España).
Autogyro A heavier-than-air flying machine which derives its lift from an unpowered 4 blade rotor system mounted above the machine operating in autorotation. Looks similar to an airplane with the addition of helicopter type overhead rotors.
Autorotation High speed movement of air through an overhead rotor system where the blades are free wheeling and able to provide lift.
Blade Loading The load placed on the rotor blades of a gyroplane by weight, air flow and control commands.
Balance Equal weight of the rotor blades and equal air movement over the blade surface equals a balance of rotation and an absence of unwanted vibration. Fine tuning may be achieved with the application of paint to a lighter blade.
Bank Sideward tilt of the aircraft in flight. When correctly executed, the bank compensates for centrifugal force, and the passengers will be pressed straight down in their seats.
Ceiling The maximum altitude to which a gyroplane can climb. Because of thin air, the engine decreases in power / the rotor blades are less effective at providing lift to climb.
Center of Gravity Called CG. A point where the resultant of all weight forces will hang evenly from this point. Usually at or very near to the main mast.
Center of Pressure An imaginary point on the cord lines of all the rotor blades where all the aerodynamic forces of the airfoil surfaces are concentrated.
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Centrifugal Force The force caused by the rotation of an object with mass.
Chord A straight line between the exact center of the leading and trailing edge of the rotor blade.
Chordwise Balance A term that refers to the mass balance of an airfoil. It is designed to be in the center of lift.
Compressibility Forces acting on a rotor blade when its tip speed approaches the speed of sound.
Coning Angle The rotor blades curve opposite to load, along their length. The greater the load the greater the angle. Coning reduces lift by reducing disc area.
Cruise Speed An airspeed that usually results in the best fuel economy and is usually between 1-1/2 and 2/3 of full power.
Density Altitude Pressure altitude calculated from air temperature, altitude and humidity.
Disc The area swept by the blades of the rotor. (plane)
Disc Loading The gross weight of the gyroplane divided by the rotor disc area. The greater the disc loading, the gyroplane's sinking speed will increase, and its glide-angle will become steeper.
Dissymmetry of Lift The unequal lift across the rotor disc, caused from the advancing blade creating more lift than the retreating blade.
Dynamic Roll Over A roll over on the ground caused by violent rotor flapping. Caused by insufficient rotor rpm combined with excessive ground speed.
Downwind Flying with the wind direction.
Endurance The maximum length of time a gyroplane can stay aloft. Depends on flying conditions and on its fuel use/capacity.
RAF2000 gyroplane Regalpony logo image
Flapping The up and down motion of the rotor blade on its teeter hinge. Without flapping, a gyroplane would roll over on its side during flight because of the unequal lift of the advancing blade vs the rearward moving blade in relation to direction of travel of the airframe.
Flare A landing maneuver performed near the ground to slow the gyroplane's rate of descent and air speed. The gyroplane is in a nose-high attitude during the execution of this maneuver.
Free-Stick A flight test where the pilot's hands are removed from the cyclic stick. A free-stick test minimizes the influence of any gyroplane airframe movements on the overhead rotorblades and generally allows improved stability of an unstable gyroplane. You can then observe the attitude of the gyroplane to in flight disturbances.
Freewheeling Disconnected from a mechanical power source
Gyrocopter Igor Bensen designed an autogyro during the 1950's which he named the 'gyrocopter' and it specifically refers to the airframe he created.
Gyroplane The modern name used in reference to an aircraft that achieves flight using an unpowered, overhead, two bladed rotor system in autorotation with forward motion supplied by an engine equiped with a two or three bladed propeller. It doesn't behave like an aeroplane. (Autogire, française.)
Gyroscopic Precession An applied force manifested 90 degrees later in the direction of rotation of spin.
Horsepower Loading The ratio of gross weight to horsepower, obtained by dividing the total weight by the engine's horsepower rating.
Induced Power The power associated with developing rotor thrust from the movement of air passing the rotor blade.
Induced Velocity The downward air velocity generated in the process of developing rotor thrust.
"Jesus Bolt" Term used in reference to the single bolt on the rotor head assembly. Installed with great care, with castle nut secured with cotter pin.
Lead-Lag The tip movement needed to adjust the rotor blades in a two-bladed system to get the weight of the whole rotor exactly equal on each side of the main shaft laterally.
Merlin gyroplane, uk Regalpony logo image
Lift Created when air moves quickly over a winged surface having greater surface area on top than on bottom. Lift is achieved when the pressure under a wing is greater than the pressure on top of a wing.
Maximum Lift Created when when flying against a strong wind with rotor disc in a positive angle.
Load Factor The ratio of rotor thrust to gross weight of the gyroplane.
Mast The main structural member of the gyroplane. The mast is the vertical assembly that connects the rotor blades to the airframe.
Parasite Power The power used to overcome the drag of all nonlifting components of the gyroplane.
Pattern The in-plane alignment of all rotor blades so they perfectly balance each other.
P.I.O. Pilot induced Oscillation - Caused by delays in the human reaction time. Also known as porpoising, which is caused by over control and inexperience or lack of knowledge on input delay.
Pitch The angle between a blade's chord line and a plane perpendicular to the rotor bearing. -> sitemap
Power Loading The ratio of the gross weight to the horsepower rating of the gyroplane's engine.
Pull Out A flight maneuver at the bottom of a dive or descent on an airplane. Not recommended for gyroplanes.
Push Over A flight maneuver at the top of a climb or a nose-down dive from level flight.
Radius of Action The distance to fly before having to return to base or reaching destination, given wind conditions and fuel time available.
Range The maximum distance a gyroplane can fly without landing or refueling.
Redundancy A fail-safe design which provides a secondary standby structural member.
Retreating Blade Rotor blade moving opposite to the horizontal direction of a gyroplane.
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Roll Tilt of the gyroplane along its longitudinal axis. Controlled by aerodynamic effect of air acting on the rotor blades.
Rotor The lift-producing airfoil system of a gyroplane. Rotor blade refers to a single blade only.
Rotor Speed The number of complete rotations a set of rotor blades makes in a defined amount of time, usually measured in minutes (rpm).
Service Ceiling Altitude at which an aircraft cannot sustain a set rate of vertical climbing speed from ground level to that point. Varies with type of aircraft.
Service Life The length of time, measured in hours, for any aircraft components or parts to remain in service. May be shorten by fatique or wear.
Side Force The force on the side of a gyroplane due to air resistance and direction.
Slip The controlled flight of a gyroplane in a direction not in line with its fore and aft axis.
Solidity Ratio The portion of the rotor disc which is filled by the rotor blades. A ratio of the total blade area to the total disc area.
Spar Load-carrying section of a rotor blade's structure. A spar carries the centrifugal force as well as loads from both ends of the blade.
Speed Stability Pitching that occours up or down to a gyroplane when the forward speed is changed.
Stabilator Small horizontal wing attached to the cylic control rods on a gyroplane. Used to automatically counteract minor rotor pitch movements to keep gyroplane flying straight and smooth. It dampens rotor motion. -> more
Stall Loss of lift under a wings surface. Air speed is too low against the leading edge and/or air is too thin.
Static Stability The tendency of a gyroplane to return to its original flight condition after a disturbance.
Teetering Rotor A two-bladed rotor with a single horizontal hinge for flapping. (Teetering blades are a non-rigid system but the moment the teeter stops hit the mast, it's no longer teetering and behaves like a rigid system.)
Thickness Ratio Maximum thickness of the airfoil to the chord length of the airfoil.
Bensen style rotor head Regalpony logo image
Tip Speed The airspeed at the top of the rotor blade in flight.
Tip Stall The stall condition of the retreating blade which occurs at high forward speeds (approx. 150mph).
Torque Force, work and time. The amount of force it takes to do the work (like spin a rotor blade) over a measured amount of time, against a resistance, i.e.: air. The greater the resistance the higher the force required to do the work. Torque is a strength (force) applied to over come a resistance to movement, over time. The shorter the time taken to reach operating speed, the higher the torque rating.
Tracking Rigging the rotor so that each blade passes through the same slot of air.

Vane

Increasing pitch angle.

Yaw

Turning of the gyroplane to the right or left by changing the direction of the airflow over the tail surface through the use of the foot petals.

 

 

 

 

 

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  * Note: This is not the only glossary of terms found on the www, relating to flying. For example: a dictionary of terms is found at: -> Air Command International and another of Canadian Air Force Glossary of Terms at their site. There are many others. Some good pages have disappeared over the years.